Was born in Peebles and died in St. Andrews. Co-founder and partner of W & R Chambers, publisher with his brother William. Like his brother, he was born with six fingers and six toes. He was an enthusiastic phrenologist. The first edition of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, his massively popular evolutionary work, was released in 1844 and published anonymously. Chambers took the secret of Vestiges with him to the grave.