Sir David Brewster
Is remembered for his experimental work in physical optics, mostly concerned with the study of the polarisation of light. He studied the birefringence of crystals under compression and discovered photo elasticity, thereby creating the field of optical mineralogy. A pioneer in photography, Brewster invented an improved stereoscope and which became the first portable 3D-viewing device. He also invented the binocular camera, the lighthouse illuminator and the kaleidoscope. He served as Principal of the University of St Andrews (1837–59) and later of the University of Edinburgh (1859–68). Brewster also edited the 18-volume Edinburgh Encyclopædia.